Alarm !: GMO Avalanche in Mexico

Alarm !: GMO Avalanche in Mexico

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With unusual intensity, Latin America is experiencing an advance by agribusiness corporations that is reminiscent of the first onslaught in the framework of the Green Revolution in the 1960s or the first landing of transgenics in the 1990s. The list covers almost all of them of the countries and to mention only the emerging cases, we can start our journey from the South with the parliamentary coup in Paraguay, which had as one of its axes the intention of obtaining the authorization of the transgenic corn that the de facto government is already trying to implement..

In Argentina, Monsanto wantsset up the largest plant in Latin America to process transgenic corn and there is an intention to modify the Seed Law to adapt it to the needs of said company. In the Andean region, we are concerned about the attempts to break the ban on transgenics in Bolivia and Ecuador with unsustainable arguments. In Costa Rica, the Biosafety Commission is also trying to approve a transgenic corn.

It is not by chance that in almost all cases corn, our corn, is the main target of these attacks. And it is not by chance that Mexico is being the focal point of one of the most brutal attacks.

Here comes the avalanche

It is possible that before the end of the presidential term of Felipe Calderón, or as one of the first acts of government of the incoming president, Enrique Peña Nieto, the commercial planting of transgenic corn will be opened in more than two million hectares of Mexican territory! , distributed in the states of Sinaloa and Tamaulipas to begin with, as the ETC Group documents with alarm:

The first applications from the multinationals Monsanto and Pioneer (owned by DuPont) are in process to plant transgenic corn on a commercial scale in Mexico: one million 400 thousand hectares in Sinaloa and more than one million hectares in Tamaulipas. This is equivalent to an area greater than the entire State of Mexico, 17 times greater than the Federal District, and greater than the sum of the entire DF, Morelos, Tlaxcala, Colima and Aguascalientes together. It is also much higher than dozens of entire countries, for example, larger than all of El Salvador, Kuwait or Luxembourg.

In more than half of that area, they want to use the same type of transgenic corn (with the Mon603 gene) that caused cancer in rats in Dr. Seralini's experiment in France, published in October 2012.1

If approved, this irrigated corn, planted in the next few months, will spread throughout Mexico in the middle of next year. It will be a corn that, following conventional distribution channels, will flood the big cities: the metropolitan area of ​​the Federal District, Tijuana, Monterrey, Guadalajara and other medium-sized cities, putting at serious risk the population that consumes it live as tortilla dough. , atole, tamales or pozol, or indirectly as part of the immense amount of processed foods that will contain it as a sweetener, emulsifier, stabilizer or excipient - and it is very difficult to trace the way.2

The Center for Studies for Change in the Mexican Countryside (Ceccam), wrote a first brochure to support resistance to aggression where it insisted on the previous point saying:

Trading companies like Cargill and industrializing companies like Maseca, Minsa and ADM buy the corn from farmers. Cargill sells grain corn to urban mills to make the masa3 with which they supply the tortillerías. Maseca and Minsa make corn flour and sell it to tortillerías, some tortillerías mix flour with masa, others only use flour, such as those sold at Walmart. Maseca and Minsa also make tortillas and sell corn flour at retail. ADM distributes grain corn for Diconsa stores. All these types of flour and dough will be made or contaminated with transgenic corn, since it is not possible to separate transgenic corn from non-transgenic corn.

In addition, the government of Mexico has always opposed the labeling of transgenic products, so very soon we will all be eating transgenic corn without knowing it.4

Why the red alert?

The peasant and indigenous communities, the people of the neighborhoods of all the big cities, the civil society organizations, cry out a total red alert for what they consider “a contamination planned with all the intention” .5 The extension to be planted is so vast that we can consider that it is a veritable avalanche of transgenic corn that is hanging over the entire country, both in the countryside for crops and in the cities for the people who consume it.

We are talking about an environmental red alert, because it will mean the erosion of the immense variety of native corn seeds in their center of origin, one much larger than just “Mesoamerican”. Government agencies have argued the existence of "centers of origin and diversification of corn" in Mexico (opening the possibility that there might be regions where it is feasible to plant whatever it is because "they are not centers of origin") while communities and organizations of civil society insist, together with researchers and experts from various parts of the world, that:

Pollution is an issue that concerns everyone, while corn is one of our most important food crops and Mexico is a reservoir for its genetic diversity, on which we all depend. The policy changes now being considered could put the Mexican government in the tragic historical role of having allowed the destruction of a critical resource for the global future of food security, and putting the most precious legacy of the people at risk. indigenous and peasants of Mexico. 6

This letter was published in 2003 shortly after hundreds of communities and organizations, in a self-managed way, demonstrated that there were already sources of transgenic contamination in native varieties of corn in several states of the Republic.

Between March and May 2009, more than 762 organizations from 56 countries spoke (signing a new letter addressed to the people of Mexico, the Mexican government, the FAO, the Convention on Biological Diversity and the United Nations Commission for Sustainable Development). and literally thousands of people, who in alarm rejected the act of the Mexican government by which it put an end to the moratorium on transgenic corn that was in effect since the end of 1998 and the beginning of 1999, and that prepared the ground for the commercial planting that today is about to be approved.

In that letter, together with the Maize Defense Network, a confluence of more than a thousand communities from 22 states of the Mexican Republic, the signatories insisted:

Mexico is the center of origin and diversity of corn. There are more than 59 recognized breeds and thousands of varieties, which will be inevitably contaminated.

Indigenous and peasant peoples are the ones who have created and maintain this genetic treasure of corn, one of the main crops on which human and animal nutrition depends on the planet.

Corn is the staple food of the Mexican population. Nowhere has its daily consumption and in large quantities been evaluated, as it happens here. There are scientific studies that, with much lower consumption, report allergies and other impacts on human and animal health fed with transgenics.7

In 2011, in various workshops and meetings, the communities reaffirmed not to allow the government to try to establish these so-called “centers of origin” that left open areas for cultivation. Back then, the head of the Mexican Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources (Semarnat), Juan Elvira, had declared: “We consider that there are at least 2 million hectares where corn can be planted with biotechnology, where there is no impact on our varieties of Creole corn, where the preservation of Creole corn and its ancestors, teosinte, are completely preserved under scientific criteria ”. And the next day he retracted.8 Given the imminence of the 2,400,000 hectares of transgenic crops just for Sinaloa and Tamaulipas, what was declared then by Secretary Juan Elvira was too small. And the communities already then responded by saying:

All of Mexico is the center of origin of corn, indeed, all of Mesoamerica and its neighborhoods (ranging from the southern United States to the northern part of South America) are the territory that we consider as the center of origin. Because also corn has never been alone. He is always in a deep relationship with the people. There is a community between the human communities and the corn community with other crops, plants and animals with which it has lived for millennia. The governmental criteria that require archaeological finds of traces of corn to qualify as an area as a center of origin are insufficient and biased. If the experts do not find anything, they say “there is not”, without taking into account the historical memory and the living presence of corn in all regions of Mexico.9

Indeed, the examination of complexity seems to confirm a close relationship between the biological and the social. According to Paul Weatherwax, one of the corn historians, “when contact was made between the New and Old World, corn was grown from 45 degrees

north latitude, where today Montreal, Canada is located, up to 40 degrees south latitude, almost a thousand kilometers south of Santiago de Chile ", as quoted by Arturo Warman, researcher and later official in his now legendary book on expansion of corn in the world.10

And there is more. The Special Rapporteur for Food, Olivier de Schutter, expressly recommended reinstating the moratorium on the planting and commercialization of transgenic corn in his mission report to Mexico in 2011.11

Recently, the Union of Scientists Committed to Society (UCCS), with links to other similar unions around the world, called on the scientific community to defend corn in its center of origin. In their invitation they said:

Mexico is the Center of Origin and Diversification of corn and its wild relatives, with more than 59 races (native varieties) of corn distributed throughout the country.

* These native maize varieties represent not only a reservoir of fundamental genetic diversity for current and future agronomic improvement efforts that contribute to the adaptation of climate change processes worldwide, but also the way of life of millions of farmers in Mexico.

* The scientific evidence available shows that once transgenic corn is planted anywhere in Mexico it will be impossible to prevent the flow of transgenes to native varieties, which will put into question not only the viability of native Mexican corn, but will also affect the way of life of millions of people, including peasants, large-scale farmers and consumers.

For all of the above, and given the perspective that the outgoing government wants to leave as a legacy the imposition of the planting of transgenic corn in our country, through a deregulation process that has ignored all the scientific evidence of risk, as well as the requests from national and international civil society, we ask you to adhere to the following Declaration and Call to Action that will be promoted before national and international bodies from the Union of Scientists Committed to Society12

It is then a global agricultural and biodiversity red alert because the irremediable contamination with transgenics of that enormous center of origin of the wonderful plant, one of the four crucial crops for humanity, implies the most brutal devastation of humanity's survival strategies that there is news - and of the livelihood, security and real food sovereignty of urban and rural populations. Never before has the genetic heritage of a crop in its center of origin been eroded on such a scale of magnitude, extension and volume, nor has the life of a population that consumes been so directly and massively committed (as Ana de Ita del Center for Studies for Change in the Mexican Countryside-Ceccam) 115 kilos of corn per year per person on average.13

And the precautionary principle?

Part of the general alarm is that social organizations resent this seeding as an "attack against the most basic subsistence and health of the Mexican population" that "would amount to genocide" 14 since numerous experiments warn of the enormous risks that consumption of this corn, as it can cause mutations, tumors, cancer, possible depression of the general immunity or other harmful effects not yet identified. Before, these deep doubts were the foundation of the universal Precautionary Principle, by which any application derived from experimentation or theory (of which there were doubts of its safety), could and should be stopped until there was substantive evidence that it did not cause any hurt. In these times, the safety check seems to fall on civil society, and innovation companies promote everything that is not proven to be harmful (according to their own regulations) without the slightest consideration and with an irresponsibility that can be described of criminal.

The problem of food.

Ceccam has been part of the organizations that have been promoting the resistance against the industrial aberration of flooding the countryside and the city with transgenic corn that is not even well known how they work. If done, the government and corporations would be substituting the activity of farmers in Sinaloa and Tamaulipas and handing over transgenic crops to corporations. Ana de Ita says:

Last September, Monsanto requested the first two permits for the commercial planting of 700 thousand hectares of corn in Sinaloa; A few weeks later, Pioneer Hi-Bred International applied for three permits for commercial planting of 320,000 hectares in Tamaulipas.

Usually in Sinaloa, 300,000 irrigated hectares are planted with corn, but Monsanto requested that 700,000 be approved for this autumn-winter cycle. Next December, Monsanto intends to plant all the irrigated hectares in Sinaloa with transgenic corn […]

In Tamaulipas, Pioneer intends to double the hectares planted with corn […]

Farmers in Sinaloa and Tamaulipas who produce corn for the market use hybrid seeds that they buy every year from transnational producers such as Monsanto, Pioneer, and Dow, which produce and promote transgenic seeds. If these companies decide to market only transgenic seeds, farmers will have no choice. Furthermore, those who decide not to grow GMOs will be contaminated by their neighbors' crops, and their corn will be mixed up in transportation, silos, elevators or warehouses. As in the United States, it will be impossible to segregate transgenic corn from conventional corn and the entire crop will end up contaminated.

Since corn from Sinaloa reaches almost every corner of the country, the threat extends to rural areas, where it will also contaminate local breeds and varieties by dispersing transgenes among native corn.15

It is very symptomatic that Sinaloa is one of the states that are the target of these transgenic crops because, more or less abruptly, the corn from Sinaloa, which for years was distributed in the cities, was replaced by imports that the Mexican government authorized this year to several marketers, including especially Cargill and Archer Daniels Midland (who decided to stop buying from Mexican farmers in Sinaloa, and favored crops from South Africa and the United States), putting Mexican producers of commercial corn and compromising the food security of the Mexican population. This would have been avoided if the State had supported the producers so that their price was better than the one offered in South Africa to the traders, but “the

The Ministry of Agriculture, which confuses food security and agricultural policy with business opportunities, argues that it does not have the resources to support producers to establish a pledge scheme that avoids the fall in the market price, guarantees the sale of the national harvest and it constitutes a technical reserve; on the contrary, it maintains that supporting national farmers would imply losses. It forgets that a function of the State is to regulate the markets of basic products and guarantee the national production ”. 16

But the contradictions add up. At the same time that there is this favoritism for marketers to the detriment of national production, and that it is intended to sow such an extension of hectares with GMOs, a report by the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), the United Nations Organization for Agriculture and Food (FAO, for its acronym in English) and the Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture (IICA), affirm that every year fewer hectares are allocated to corn production, with Mexico being one of the most its planted area has decreased (5 percent in 5 years) only below that of Guatemala.17

Finally, allowing Monsanto, Pioneer and Dow to “sow death” in such an extension of hectares, directly or by contract, or through the sale of transgenic seed as the only possibility of supplying seed in those spaces, is to promote land grabbing brutal, a displacement of the national non-transgenic production and the non-indirect promotion of a distribution and commercialization of food to the cities, monopolistic and speculative on the part of ADM and Cargill.

And it goes without saying that it is not the farmers who apply for these permits: “they are directly transnational transgenics companies that explicitly become the owners of Mexican agriculture - what is planted, how much, where, at what price, under what risks, for whom ”.18

On the contrary, peasant organizations, indigenous spaces, networks of civil society organizations, begin to speak out, hold sit-ins, announcements, posters. Thus, when demanding that the government deny Monsanto such commercial corn planting permits, Olegario Carrillo Meza, president of the Union of Autonomous Peasant Organizations (Unorca), an organization that is part of Via Campesina-North America, argued: “There is no technological reason , economic or ethical for the benefit of the population and the majority of the farmers in the field that justifies the authorization of the commercial planting of transgenic corn in at least one million hectares in the states of Sinaloa and Tamaulipas ”. Carrillo Meza added: “In the current six-year term that is about to end, the federal government, through the Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of the Environment, granted 162 licenses for experimental cultivation of transgenic corn and pilot planting, which adds up to 177 permits in open field". The president of Unorca stressed that the federal government is "obliged to reestablish the moratorium on any type of cultivation of transgenic corn in the country." If the government approves the pending permits “it would be an attack against the fulfillment of the right to food, as it would further reduce the possibilities for the population to access healthy, sufficient and quality food; the claims of the Monsanto and Pioneer companies represent a danger to human health, biodiversity, culture and the sovereignty of the country ”.19

Why an avalanche?

It must be remembered that for eleven years - since 2001 - the government not only did not stop the pollution, but also downplayed it and actually allowed it. The very possible flood with transgenics in the communities in the center and south of the country did not occur because the communities could do little or no good to stop the entry of transgenic corn into their territories through a de facto moratorium assumed naturally and without showy statements but with a

decision and an unshakable certainty, which remains valid That prevented transgenic contamination from spreading in Mexico during all these eleven years - as it has happened in other countries. The insistent and loving work of the Network in Defense of Maize (as we said more than a thousand communities in some 22 states of the country) was a real brake. But the people of the peasant communities of the country have enough clarity to know that an avalanche of this magnitude will end up irremediably contaminating crops that are not even so close to the huge fields planted with GMOs, and will be introduced to the Mexican population without any restraint. .

As the poster that is already circulating to support the resistance in the neighborhoods of many cities states:

More than eleven years ago, since contamination of transgenic corn was discovered, hundreds of communities and peasant organizations, many of them indigenous, have been fighting against transgenic corn, raising awareness among its inhabitants, fine-tuning their seed exchange strategies, observing more closely its milpas, making community statutes that prohibit the entry of transgenic corn, rejecting the seeds of government programs. They have understood that the fight is not only for a meal, or for a plant, or for a plot; They have understood that it is the struggle that goes from the seed to the territories and the possibility of material and political freedom. twenty

During those years, the Mexican government implemented, step by step, laws, regulations and public policies that undoubtedly promoted the entry of genetically modified organisms. First, it flooded the indigenous peasant spaces with imported corn (with a high percentage of stirred and indistinguishable transgenic corn) through the 23 thousand peasant stores of the parastatal company Diconsa, which implanted sources of contamination in areas that did not manage to expand in a generalized way. . Among the organizations and the students of the process, there is the certainty that this contamination was and is a conscious strategy of the companies and the technical and political officials of the Mexican government.21

Later, the government authorities promoted the idea that Mexicans would have to learn to “coexist” with genetically modified organisms and that nothing would happen. In this context, the full Mexican Congress (deputies and senators alike) approved the Law of

Biosafety and Genetically Modified Organisms (LBOGM) and several collateral laws, such as the Federal Law of Production, Certification and Trade in Seeds, the regulations of both laws and a complete battery that configures a true shield to obstruct justice.

Third, the government bet on confusion. The LBOGM regulation regarding the so-called Special Maize Protection Regime contributed to it, which practically disappeared and thus left a legal uncertainty that still exists around whether in Mexico there are centers of origin of maize and places where there are no such centers, or if the whole country is a center of origin —as many organizations, communities, groups, researchers and people of good will have insisted on.

That all of Mexico and more is the center of origin of corn for the world was and is one of the foundations of the de facto moratorium that worked from 1997 to 2009. And it is something that the Network in Defense of Corn will continue to claim.

Taking advantage of the confusion, experimental and pilot plantings were installed in the north of the country in a clandestine way. Faced with this, the Mexican government did not react according to what the law mandated at that time, but, on the contrary, decreed the breaking of the moratorium, which occurred on March 6, 2009. With the breaking of the moratorium a new step was established: from then on, the agencies in charge began to grant permits for experimental planting and pilot planting in the north of the country with the law ahead. In parallel, the government has been making preparations to undertake monitoring of communities in search of "uncertified" seeds, "pirate seeds", which is one of the most alarming signs of how biodiversity in peasant and indigenous hands is being criminalized. under the guise of protecting her.

From here on, the discourse changed. The government undertook a double strategy: on the one hand, the promotion of state laws that claim to defend “criollo” corn from contamination through the registration, certification, and inspection of seeds, producers, and the agricultural process. On the other hand, the delimitation of so-called "centers of origin" unique in the national territory, thus opening the space so that in the rest of the country there is an enormous extension to promote industrial and transgenic agriculture.

Both strategies aim to wash the image of state policies and insist that they are to take care of the genetic heritage of the country, the multiculturalism of native peoples and the diversity of maize, when in reality they prepare the eradication of everything that, in Regarding agriculture, it is not subject to the controls established by the norms, regulations, laws, and constitutional reforms of a Mexican State that is highly interwoven with large corporations.

For eleven years, the communities that grow corn in complex systems such as the milpa have insisted that to defend the corn, it must be sown; that to defend the freedom of seeds it is necessary to continue guarding and exchanging them; that the first autonomy is to grow one's own food, and that starting from there it is possible to undertake the integral defense of the territory.

Companies seek to break independent food production. To achieve this, they must break the relationship of the people with their sources of subsistence, and that is why they seek to break the idea of ​​community, territorial defense, and the autonomy of the peoples. Grabbing land and water is the primary step to later change land use, flood monocultures, promote authoritarian programs for the intensification of crops with mechanization and pesticide packages, which expels the population to cities or to projects. agro-industrial companies to invade in search of minerals and biodiversity, predating the forest or speculating with the purchase and sale of air bonds on international stock exchanges.

Now, seeking to take over the entire food chain (from land grabbing to supermarket marketing channels), they have decided to impose GMOs. The grave

it is that not only agriculture is at stake but the very subsistence of the people. The attack also hits those who, without producing their food, are absolute dependents of government and business policies that decided to run the risk of exacerbating the health of the entire urban population in Mexico just by establishing their total control over sources production, production itself and its processing and distribution.

An authorization of the commercial planting of transgenic corn with distribution destined for the cities is the most critical moment of this process and will end the debate possible through the authoritarian route: an avalanche of massive scale that needs to be totally stopped.22

The answer

The Mexican population is not folding its arms. A visible resistance, embodied in hundreds of organizations, groups of scientists, organizations of civil society, communities, peasant groups, indigenous peoples, lawyers, neighborhood organizations, students and a long etcetera more and more anonymous as it becomes more unanimous throughout the world. country, begins to exert pressure, request compliance with the norms recommended by the government itself; begins to link from multiple corners, to socialize information, to open spaces to agree on short, medium and long-term actions (workshops, meetings, conferences, legal processes and ethical systematization in the courts of conscience, mobilizations, flyers, sit-ins and more ) It is a despised resistance, arising from so far below that it is not even on the official maps but it will not allow such a serious threat against life itself.

A resistance, peaceful but determined, for the subsistence of the Mexican population (and on the continent) in defense of the body, the soil, the environment, the knowledge and the seeds; for our survival and feeding strategies; against genocide, contempt, imposition and devastation of corn, tlayolli, of the yok-ixim or kiximtik, of the Nice, of the i-ku, and many other names that, according to the original language of each people, allow them to communicate their strength and care for millennia. Esta resistencia pacífica se dirimirá en los barrios y las comunidades, en los estanquillos, las escuelas, los comedores familiares, las tortillerías y los molinos, en los centros culturales y en las comunidades más apartadas, pero será cierta.

Se dirime también mediante una demanda interpuesta ante el Tribunal Permanente de los Pueblos, que sesiona en México desde octubre de 2011 y que sesionará hasta el 2014. Siendo un tribunal de conciencia de reconocida trayectoria (es heredero del Tribunal Russell), el tribunal está propiciando una articulación de las diversas resistencias al interior de México, contra los inmensos agravios de todo tipo. Esa demanda, contra los transgénicos y por la seguridad y la soberanía alimentaria, agrupa ya a miles de comunidades y cientos de organizaciones y emprende una sistematización integral de la problemática de la defensa territorial, la agricultura, la producción independiente de alimentos, la defensa de las semillas nativas y la urgente seguridad alimentaria de la población que no produce alimentos.23

Más temprano que tarde esta resistencia en México se articulará con las luchas que ya se emprenden en Costa Rica, Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina y Chile y que de un modo irrenunciable buscan frenar los transgénicos, las leyes de certificación de las semillas y la imposición de modelos de cultivo que privilegian a las grandes corporaciones del sistema agroalimentario industrial mundial contra la agricultura campesina, tradicional y contemporánea que como reiteramos una y otra vez, bien puede enfriar la tierra. La soberanía alimentaria es el paso más rotundo desde los propios espacios para evadir la dependencia de las corporaciones que quieren decidir qué comemos y a qué precio. Entendiendo las relaciones entre el campo y la ciudad las organizaciones, como la Red en Defensa del Maíz en México insisten:

Defender el maíz en México pasa necesariamente por el respeto a la libre determinación y autonomía de las comunidades y pueblos indígenas y campesinos.

Rechazamos una vez más cualquier siembra experimental, piloto o comercial, así como la distribución, almacenamiento, comercialización, de organismos genéticamente modificados en cualquier parte del territorio nacional (y en el mundo).

La soberanía alimentaria radicará siempre en el respeto del derecho colectivo a tener, guardar e intercambiar libremente semillas nativas sin la imposición de mecanismo alguno de control estatal, federal o empresarial (sea certificación, inventario, banco de semillas, catálogo de variedades, patentes, denominaciones de origen o derechos de obtentor).

La soberanía alimentaria requiere condiciones que permitan la producción libre y autónoma de alimentos a nivel local, regional y nacional, el respeto a nuestros territorios, amenazados ahora por proyectos mineros, hidroeléctricos, petroleros, carreteros, de servicios ambientales, reservas de la biósfera, privatización de los mantos de agua; territorios amenazados también por la industrialización y urbanización salvaje y por la política ambiental oficial de conservación sin gente. .24



1 Silvia Ribeiro (Grupo ETC), “Invasión”, La Jornada, 3 de noviembre de 2012. Ver Gilles-Eric Séralini , Emilie Clair, Robin Mesnage, Steeve Gress, Nicolas Defarge, Manuela Malatesta, Didier Hennequin, Joël Spiroux de Vendômois:, Long term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize, Food and Quemical Toxicology, Volume 50, Issue 11, noviembre de 2012, pp. 4221–4231

2 Para ahondar esta información, ver Maíz transgénico: Ataque mortal a nuestra salud, a los pueblos, al campo, cartel elaborado por Movimiento Urbano Popular como material de apoyo a talleres para alertar a la población, noviembre de 2012.

3 En México, la masa es la forma ancestral de procesar el grano, añadiendo un poco de cal al maíz que se está cociendo, en un proceso conocido como “nixtamalizar el maíz”. Esto garantiza que el maíz está listo para que sus nutrientes se aprovechen al máximo

4 Ceccam: “Alerta roja transgénica”, material de apoyo para talleres de concientización barrial, octubre de 2012.

5 Testimonios recogidos en los talleres de capacitación y alerta del Movimiento Urbano Popular, octubre-noviembre, 2012.

6 “Carta a la opinión pública nacional e internacional firmada por 302 organizaciones de la sociedad civil de todo el mundo”, noviembre de 2003. El maíz no es una cosa, es un centro de origen, Colectivo por la Autonomía GRAIN, Centro de Análisis Social, Información y Formación Popular (Casifop), Editorial Ítaca-CS-Fund, México, 2012, pp. 93-94

7 “Contra el fin de la moratoria”, Comunicado de la Red en Defensa del Maíz suscrito por organizaciones y académicos, investigadores y personas a nivel mundial”, marzo-mayo 2009. Ver El maíz no es una cosa, es un centro de origen, op.cit. pp 179-182.

8 Greenpeace, 17 de noviembre, 2011,

9 Ver “Los pueblos indígenas de México defendemos todo México como cuna del maíz”, Comunicado del Festival de Semillas del Centro Ecológico la Primavera de Organizaciones Campesinas, y de la Organización de Agricultores Biológicos, Tlacolula, Oaxaca, 27 de noviembre, 2011, Ojarasca en The Day 176, 10 de diciembre de 2011.

10 Arturo Warman, La historia de un bastardo: maíz y capitalismo. Fondo de Cultura Económica, México, 1988.

11 Relator Especial de la ONU sobre el derecho a la alimentación: El derecho a la alimentación: informe de misión a México, 2011, Naciones Unidas-Derechos Humanos, Oficina del Alto Comisionado, 2012.

12 Invitación a firmar el comunicado de la UCCS. Ligas para leer y firmar el documento: Español: English:

13 Ana de Ita, “Fe de ratas”, La Jornada, 16 de octubre de 2012.

14Testimonios recogidos en los talleres de capacitación y alerta del Movimiento Urbano Popular, op.cit.

15 Ana de Ita, “Fe de ratas”, op.cit.

16 Ana de Ita, “La seguridad alimentaria como negocio”, La Jornada, 28 de abril 2012

17 Ver “México, segundo país en AL que más redujo área para cultivar maíz”, nota de Susana González, La Jornada, 11 de noviembre de 2012.

18 Silvia Ribeiro, “Invasión”, op.cit.

19 Jair López Vega, “Campesinos demandan negar permisos para siembra de maíz transgénico”. El Financiero, 6 de noviembre de 2012.

20 Ver Maíz transgénico: Ataque mortal… op.cit.

21 Ver El maíz no es una cosa, es un centro de origen, op.cit.

22 Ver el recuento de la lucha de once años en El maíz no es una cosa, es un centro de origen. op cit.

23 Ver: “Violencia contra el maíz, la soberanía alimentaria y los derechos y la autonomía de los pueblos”, demanda presentada ante el Tribunal Permanente de los Pueblos, capítulo México, 2012, Ver también “Las razones del maíz” (en tres idiomas),

24 Comunicado de la Red en Defensa del Maíz, 17 de marzo de 2011.

Video: Bill, Melinda Gates advocate GMOs to a Brussels audience (July 2022).


  1. Makolm

    Really strange

  2. Yakout

    His didn't reach yet.

  3. Taurr

    the very entertaining piece

  4. Laodegan

    Hmm ... Nothing at all.

  5. Matthew

    You can't change anything.

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