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The reality of rural communities in the San Andrés Valley, Cuba

The reality of rural communities in the San Andrés Valley, Cuba

By Lic. Vivian Castañeda Valdés

Given the forest resource and the scientific potential that the province of Pinar del Río has, it is time for science and technology to take their place in the use of NTFPs and their transformation into consumer goods for the people and the development of the peasant woman from the San Andrés valley area, based on an adequate environmental strategy, integrating respect for the environment in the application of modern technologies for agriculture and in the management of ecosystems and natural resources.


Summary:

The reality of rural communities in Cuba shows that there is an intimate connection between women, men, communities and trees, a relationship that is well recognized in development programs until recent years. The relations between gender and employment, inserted in the search for greater social cohesion in Cuba, the search for new dynamics in the labor context and the analysis of public policies and other factors that affect the labor market, through the virtual space allowed to show both the gender specificities that occur in employment and domestic work, as well as the common characteristics that affect women and men.

The agricultural resources that depend on natural factors such as the climate, the relief, among others, the non-wood resources of the forest are practically inexhaustible, if we exploit it from a sustainable point of view. To the extent that the social role for women is closely linked to the family and domestic role, socially assigned, and that both roles interact in the female potentialities, participation and access to Power, they require a basic structural platform that guarantees at least some premises. This platform is made up of 3 main axes: employment opportunity, qualification and reproductive health care.

The work was based on surveys, field investigations and interviews with people who are dedicated to making handicrafts, collecting plants and protecting these areas.

Introduction

The reality of rural communities in Cuba shows that there is an intimate connection between women, men, communities and trees, a relationship that is well recognized in development programs until recent years.

Likewise, it is evidenced that women, in addition to jobs related to reproduction, assume an increasingly direct relationship with the different factors of production, complement family income, take care of crops, livestock, etc. crafts and trees, when there are any.

The new approach to forestry development involves five existing dimensions of the relationship between trees, women and men:

1. Social benefits;
2. The economic benefits;
3. The environmental benefits;
4. The cultural benefits; Y
5. Local technical knowledge.

These dimensions are expressed in five essential areas for the life of the communities:

• Trees play an important role in the lives of rural men and women, as they offer products that meet the specific needs of both.

• Trees modify the economic situation of the rural population, providing food, medicine, income from the sale of forest by-products and jobs, favoring sustained agricultural production.

• The proper use and management of forest resources have an important role in environmental protection, since they enrich the soils and purify the air, protect water sources and streams and improve the environmental environment of the communities.

• Caring for trees and forests requires that, in the communities, men and women acquire a set of technical knowledge in addition to their local knowledge, in order to achieve maximum use and sustainable management.

• Trees are part of the rites, festivals and beliefs of the rural population.

Globally, forestry project planners recognize that women play an essential and determining role in the management of trees and forests and in the use of forest products and by-products.

"Gender refers to differences and inequalities between men and women for social and cultural reasons. These differences are found in roles (reproductive, productive and community management), responsibilities, local knowledge, needs, priorities related to the management, access and use of natural resources. Although there are differences, it is important to also be aware that there are interactions and overlaps between the roles of women and men. With the gender approach, equity in impact is sought, rather than equal opportunities. Gender is relatively new, there are development models that have taken into account the division of labor in productive systems by gender.

The relations between gender and employment, inserted in the search for greater social cohesion in Cuba, the search for new dynamics in the labor context and the analysis of public policies and other factors that affect the labor market, through the virtual space allowed to show both the gender specificities that occur in employment and domestic work, as well as the common characteristics that affect women and men.

The current ecological situation attracts the attention of men all over the world. In addition, those who have become aware of the responsibility of humanity towards nature not only consists of the very fact of the dramatic situation of the environment but also tries insistently to clarify the causes that generate such a dangerous situation in order to find real ways that lead to its elimination (Starcof, 1985).

The agricultural resources that depend on natural factors such as the climate, the relief, among others, the non-wood resources of the forest are practically inexhaustible, if we exploit it from a sustainable point of view.

Education plays an essential role in the development of individuals and societies, but it should not be considered a miracle remedy or a magic formula for a world in which all ideals are to be realized. However, in the current conditions in which Cuban rural women live, education constitutes one of the means available to promote a deeper and more harmonious form of their human development.

In this area, the common thread of reflection is the concept of gender, which establishes the differentiation between the sexes, as a social, historical, conditioning process, built on biological attributes but not reducible to them, configuring differentiated identities according to archetypes. rigid and pre-established.

The relationship of power and subordination permeates social structures with effects of inequality on female participation. We consider that a greater dimension of equity is progressively acquired through social participation and this is enhanced when it is linked to organic transformation projects towards social development. But for the female gender, the participation process acquires other complexities, and it takes shape in the process of progressive empowerment.

The diagnosis is part of raising awareness, but it requires a historical understanding of society where gender inequality, although significant, is not the most determining factor, occurring in conjunction with strong inequalities such as those linked to social class, ethnicity and the generation.

To the extent that the social role for women is closely linked to the family and domestic role, socially assigned, and that both roles interact in the female potentialities, participation and access to Power, they require a basic structural platform that guarantees at least some premises. This platform is made up of 3 main axes: employment opportunity, qualification and reproductive health care.

It seems logical to think that women with a non-traditional mindset towards the gender role should do better than women with a traditional mindset. Basow (1980) describes the non-traditional woman as androgynous: a woman who is capable of choosing her own role, be it male or female. It also ensures that the more instrumental qualities a person has, the better adapted they will be psychologically. Since the instrumental qualities of personality are considered masculine, it would turn out that traditional women (those with expressive qualities) would not fare very well psychologically. Bernard (1972) found that housewives showed symptoms of psychological stress more often than working women. The housewife has only one source of satisfaction, her work at home, and if it is not rewarding, she has no other source of satisfaction (Gove, 1972; Gove and Tudor, 1973). The working woman has her job as an alternative. Gove and Tudor (1973) observe that when a married woman works, she also experiences a conflict of roles due to unsatisfactory work and housework. However, Basow (1980) says that women who consider their work as a professional career and not just a job experience less stress. Basow also assures that mothers who had interests outside the home and saw themselves in a different role than mothers would suffer less from the “empty nest syndrome” than mothers who saw themselves only as mothers.

Characterization of the study area.

According to the current administrative political division of the country, the study area is located in the municipality of La Palma.

This area belongs to the western region and is located in a contact zone where several geographical sub-regions affect: Sierra de los Órganos, Alturas de Pizarras, Valles karst, and Sierra de Guacamaya, reason for its extraordinary variety of fauna and flora and landscaping (Núñez, 1982).

The limits are described below:

North: Sierra de Guacamaya, Pico Grande, Part waters up to La Varia.
East: Pico Chico, Alturas de Pizarras and the municipal limit with the Palaces.
South: Limits of the Consolación del Sur municipalities.
West: Limits With the municipality of Viñales.

Methodology of carrying out the work.

The work was based on surveys, field investigations and interviews with people who are dedicated to making handicrafts, collecting plants and protecting these areas.

1. Respondents by area of ​​residence.


2. Respondents by profession



Pollster: The Author.

Method: Direct questions.

The survey was conducted among people who have or had had a relationship with the management, use, study and protection of these resources, using the "face-to-face", standardized and exploratory interview method (Ibarra et al., 2002), following the steps below:

* Presentation.

* Explanation of the purposes and objectives of the interview.

* Explanation of the method of selecting the respondents.

* Presentation of the managing entity of the interview.

* Explain that anonymity was guaranteed.

These people were chosen in the study area through previous research carried out by the author to seven delegates of the popular power, artisans of the area, relatives of the artisans, CPA presidents, CSC presidents, plant collectors, almost all residents from the San Andrés Valley.

Results and Discussion

Table 1: Mention, in order, the main problems that affect the use of plants for crafts in the area.


Table 2: Mention, in order, the five plants most used in crafts in the area


Table 3: Mention, in order, five objects with the highest production in the area


Table 4: Propose possible solutions to handicraft problems in the San Andrés valley.


Table 5: Taking into account the following assessment, classify the order of abundance of artisanal plants.

• Very abundant………. 5.
• Abundant …………… ..4.
• Regular ………………… .3.
• Scarce ………………… ..2.
• Very scarce …………… .1.


Research on the social impact on the use of many NTFPs, had as results that with the application of this work, it contributes to solve the following social problems:

• Creation of new sources of employment for women in the area: (18 artisans and their families are in charge of this activity, in addition to 5 requests from organizations and individuals for advice on starting the activity).

• Raising the cultural level of the population in the area through the creation of learning classrooms and circles of interest in schools in the area.

• The education of the new generations, based on environmental ethics and the development of women. So far, 5 lectures and didactic talks have been given to workers, students, schoolchildren and farmers on the subject.

• Alternative source of work during the war of the whole town or other extreme situations, due to its importance for masking.

Conclusions.

• Given the forest resource and scientific potential that the province of Pinar del Río has, it is time for science and technology to take their place in the use of NTFPs and their transformation into consumer goods for the people and the development of the rural women of the San Andrés valley area, based on an adequate environmental strategy, integrating respect for the environment in the application of modern technologies for agriculture and in the management of ecosystems and natural resources.

• Research resources need to be directed towards those neglected products that have promising gender human development potential by creating simple facilities with minimal expenditure of resources, thereby opening up new jobs in rural areas.

Lic. Vivian Castañeda Valdés. Assistant Professor, Faculty of Mountain Agronomy, University of Pinar del Río, Cuba

Bibliography.

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